Authenticity of amulets by SEM-EDS

Authenticity of amulets by SEM-EDS

• Examined by a micron scanning high-magnification electron microscope or Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), magnification ranging from X15 to X200,000 times.

• The elemental analysis of the material was analyzed by using the microscopic technique or Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS) by using both of quantitative and qualitative method.

Audit Principle

• SEM LV Mode + EDS Low Vacuum is used to study the morphology and details of the outer surface of the cross-section of metals and materials. (Maximum size up to 3 inches, height less than 1 inch) in combination with the quantitative and qualitative elemental analysis.

• Using an electron-generating camera in the low vacuum state and not destroying the sample, showing the surface and the crystal structure.

 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
 Example of new amulet examined
The sample was spotted on the left shoulder of amulet, taken at 150x magnification by SEM, further step using elemental analysis with EDS, most of them are plant leaves because they contain K (potassium), Mg (magnesium) and Ca (calcium) as below results
The results of amulet elemental analysis by using EDS qualitative (Low Vacuum Mode)
Elemental analysis with EDS
It showed that the elements O (oxygen), S (sulfur), Mg (magnesium), Si (silicon), Ca (calcium) were components. But it was unknow how much of each element is, therefore, further analyzed in quantitative method was needed.
The results of amulet elemental analysis by using EDS quantitative (Low Vacuum Mode)
The results of the quantitative EDS analysis for amulet powder were looking at % of element e.g. Ca (Calcium) 43.41%. The highest material composition of the sample new amulet powder was oxygen 55.79%, followed by calcium 43.41%. When we get % of these elements, if this amulet is real. We then compare this information with other amulets of the same type that we have to bring into the machine and analyze them in the same process. Comparing result of another should not be significantly different with model.


These are the example of a crystal structure comparison from a SEM photograph and an EDS elemental analysis (qualitative and quantitative of the real Phra Somdej vs Plastic vs Seashell
Sample A: The real Phra Somdej

 Magnifying photo 5,000x and all elements analysis of sample A
 Sample B: Fake Phra Somdej made of Plastic with magnifying 5,000x

All elements analysis of sample B

Sample C: The new Phra Somdej made of sea shell with magnifying 5,000x
All elements analysis of sample C
Summary of Phra Somdej from 3 samples
Sample of
Sample A
Real Phra Somdej
Sample B
Fake Phra Somdej
Sample C
New Phra Somdej

Magnifying power5,000 times (area 10
5,000 times (area 10
5,000 times (area 10
Crystal StructureThere is a systematic
regeneration of calcite,
rhombus-like crystals,
high overlapping like
top of chedi (pagoda).
The overlap of the
germination layer can
roughly infer the
age (period) of the amulet.
The old age will be
thick concretion,
the layer in young age
may not be clearly seen.
In a normal environment,
every 50 years, calcite will
germinate 0.05 mm.
No germination, single
layer on rough terrain,
and patching of additives
for unsystematically
There is a systematic
regeneration of high
and low calcite.
Descending of
elements %
AdditivesNot appear.It appears antimony (Sb),
which is used in
color additives on surface.
Not appear.


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